The Integrative Developmental Model of Supervision

Cover of The Integrative Developmental Model of Supervision (medium)
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Format: DVD [Closed Captioned]
Availability: In Stock
Running Time: more than 100 minutes
Item #: 4310948
ISBN: 978-1-4338-2124-0
Copyright: 2016
APA Psychotherapy Training Videos are intended solely for educational purposes for mental health professionals. Viewers are expected to treat confidential material found herein according to strict professional guidelines. Unauthorized viewing is prohibited.

In The Integrative Developmental Model of Supervision, guest expert supervisor Dr. Brian W. McNeill demonstrates and discusses this approach to supervision.

The goal of the integrative developmental model (IDM) is to promote personal and professional therapist growth through three developmental levels by closely attending to the three overriding structures of Self- and Other-Awareness, Motivation, and Autonomy across eight domains of clinical practice including intervention skills competence, assessment techniques, individual differences, and professional ethics.

The IDM stresses the importance of assessing the therapist's developmental level while at the same time providing the optimal supervisory environment for progression through those levels.

In this video, Dr. McNeill and his supervisee engage in a supervisory session, and host Dr. Arpana G. Inman interviews them about their work together, exploring the constructs of this model as they discuss highlights from the demonstration session.

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The integrated developmental model of clinical supervision (IDM) posits that professional development occurs in a domain-specific manner, indicated by changes in three over-arching structures that serve as markers for development. These changes in self and other awareness, motivation, and autonomy illuminate the developmental progression through three levels across domains of professional activity.

Briefly, for the structure of self-other awareness, the trainee begins (Level 1) primarily attending to his or her own thoughts, emotions, and behavior attempting to understand and implement therapeutic processes while dealing with perceptions of low self-efficacy, anxiety, frustration, and hopefulness. Successful negotiation of this level moves the trainee to Level 2, where the focus moves away from self-consciousness to an increasing focus on the client, or other awareness. This growth allows for greater learning and understanding of the client's perspective (cognitive and affective) than was previously possible, and can have both positive (increasing ability to empathize, perspective-taking) as well as negative implications (confusion, emotional contagion, frustration). Movement to Level 3 is marked by more of a balance between a facilitative self-awareness and focus on the client, allowing for the positive impact of empathy and perspective-taking combined with reflection-in-action or a greater ability to reflect on past learning, experiences, one's own thoughts, and emotional reactions to bring to bear on the counseling process.

Similar changes occur for the structures of motivation and autonomy across levels. Motivation moves from global and somewhat extrinsic for Level 1 through variably high and low as it changes from extrinsic to more intrinsic for Level 2 and into a stable, largely intrinsic motivation in Level 3.

The autonomy structure changes accordingly, moving from largely dependent in Level 1 through dependency/autonomy vacillation in Level 2 to conditional autonomy in Level 3. In general, trainee development is conceptualized as reflecting quantitative changes within levels and qualitative changes across levels.

The final step, according to the IDM, is movement to Level 3, where the focus becomes more on integration of development across domains.

Differing characteristics and needs at each level of development suggest that the supervision environment should also vary accordingly. In general, the IDM assumes that the amount of structure for the supervision environment provided by the supervisor should be rather high for beginners and reduce over time moving toward greater supervisee influence on setting the structure for the supervision experience as development continues. Supervision interventions are broadly categorized into facilitative, prescriptive, conceptual, confrontive, and catalytic which are differentially used across supervisee levels to encourage growth.

An important aspect of the IDM is that of domain-specific development. Eight domains of professional activity are listed in the IDM, but these are noted as overly broad and as indications of some domains in which the supervisor should attend to differential development among supervisees.

The domains are

  • intervention skills competence
  • assessment techniques
  • interpersonal assessment
  • client conceptualization
  • individual differences
  • theoretical orientation
  • treatment plans and goals
  • professional ethics

However, as highlighted by Stoltenberg (2008), working with clients from different modalities (i.e., individual and couples counseling) may constitute different domains of development and may require moving between supervision environments appropriate for different levels of development for the same supervisee within a given supervision session as well as across sessions.

The "integrative" aspect of the IDM includes an examination of theory and research beyond the area of clinical supervision (and psychotherapy) to help illuminate processes held in common with other areas of psychology.

Stoltenberg and McNeill (2010) articulate the utility of additional research and conceptualizations in understanding the supervision process including cognitive models (cognitive and emotional processing; Anderson, 2005, Greenberg, 2002), schema development and refinement (McVee, Dunsmore, & Gravelek, 2005, Schön, 1987), and skill development; development from novice to expert (Anderson, 2005); interpersonal influence (Dixon & Claiborn, 1987; Stoltenberg, McNeill, & Crethar, 1995) and social intelligence (Goleman, 2006); motivation (Petty & Wegener, 1999, Ryan & Deci, 2000); and, of course, models of human development (Lerner, 1986).

About the Therapist

Dr. Brian W. McNeill received his PhD in 1984 from Texas Tech University in counseling psychology, and is currently a professor of counseling psychology and co-director of the Pacific Northwest Center for Mestizo and Indigenous Research and Outreach at Washington State University.

He is the coeditor of The Handbook of Chicana and Chicano Psychology and Mental Health (2004), Latina/o Healing Practices: Mestizo and Indigenous Perspectives (2008), Intersections of Multiple Identities (2010), and the coauthor with Cal Stoltenberg of IDM Supervision: An Integrative Developmental Model for Supervising Counselors and Therapists (2010).

His research interests and areas of expertise include clinical supervision, Chicana/o Latina/o psychology, recruitment and retention of culturally diverse students in professional psychology, and investigations of Latina/o spiritual healing traditions.

Dr. McNeill is a licensed psychologist in the states of Washington and Idaho where he practices and consults.

Suggested Readings
  • Anderson, J. R. (2005). Cognitive psychology and its implications (6th ed.) New York: Worth Publishers.
  • Dixon, D. N., & Claiborn, C. D. (1987). A social influence approach to counselor supervision. In J. E. Maddux, C. D. Stoltenberg, & R. Rosenwein (Eds.), Social processes in clinical and counseling psychology (pp. 83–93). New York: Springer-Verlag.
  • Goleman, D. (2006). Social intelligence: The new science of human relationships. Bantam: New York, NY.
  • Lerner, R. M. (1986). Concepts and theories of human development (2nd ed.). New York: Random House.
  • McVee, M. B., Dunsmore, K., & Gavelek, J. R. (2005). Schema theory revisited. Review of Educational Research, 75, 531–566.
  • Petty, R. E., & Wegener, D. T. (1999). The Elaboration Likelihood Model: Current status and controversies. In S. Chaiken & T. Trope (Eds.), Dual process theories in social psychology (pp. 41–72). New York: Guilford Press.
  • Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68–78.
  • Schön, D. A. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  • Stoltenberg, C. D., & McNeill, B. W. (2012). Supervision: Research, Models, Competence. In N. A. Fouad and L. M. Subich (Eds.). APA Handbook of Counseling Psychology. Washington D.C.: American Psychological Association.
  • Stoltenberg, C. D., & McNeill, B. W. (2010). IDM supervision: The integrative developmental model of supervision. (3rd Ed.). New York: Routledge.
  • Stoltenberg, C. D., & McNeill, B. W. (2010). IDM supervision: The integrative developmental model of supervision. (3rd Ed.). New York: Routledge.
  • Stoltenberg, C. D., McNeill, B. W., & Crethar, H. C. (1995). Persuasion and development in counselor supervision. The Counseling Psychologist, 23, 633–648.
  • Stoltenberg, C. D., McNeill, B. W., & Crether, H. C. (1994). Changes in Supervision as Counselors and Therapists Gain Experience: A Review. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 25, 416–449.
  • Stoltenberg, C.D. (2008). Developmental Approaches to Supervision: A Case Example. In C. A. Falander & E. P. Shafranske (eds.) Casebook for clinical supervision: A competency-based approach (pp. 39–56). New York: American Psychological Association.
  • Worthen, V. & McNeill, B. W. (1996). A Phenomenological Investigation of "Good" Supervision Events. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43, 25–34.

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