Law and Human Behavior ® is a multidisciplinary forum for the publication of articles and discussions of issues arising from the relationships between human behavior and the law, the legal system, and the legal process.

The journal publishes original research, reviews of earlier research results, and theoretical studies. Coverage spans criminal justice, law, psychology, sociology, psychiatry, political science, education, communication, and other areas germane to the field.

This is the official journal of the American Psychology-Law Society (AP-LS)/Division 41 of APA.

Law and Human Behavior® is a registered trademark of American Psychological Association
Editorial Board


Margaret Bull Kovera
John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York

Associate Editors

David DeMatteo
Drexel University

Amy Bradfield Douglass
Bates College

Bradley D. McAuliff
California State University, Northridge

Patricia A. Zapf
John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York

Past Editors

Brian Cutler
University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Ontario, Canada

Richard Wiener
University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Ronald Roesch
Simon Fraser University, British Columbia, Canada

Michael J. Saks
Arizona State University

Bruce Sales
Indiana University

Consulting Editors

Paul S. Appelbaum
Columbia University

Marcus T. Boccaccini
Sam Houston State University

Brian H. Bornstein
University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Eve M. Brank
University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Neil Brewer
Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia

Maggie Bruck
Johns Hopkins University

Steve D. Charman
Florida International University

Steven E. Clark
University of California, Riverside

Deborah A. Connolly
Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada

Dennis J. Devine
Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis

Kevin S. Douglas
Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada

John F. Edens
Texas A&M University

Eric B. Elbogen
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

David L. Faigman
University of California, Hastings College of Law

Par Anders Granhag
University of Gothenburg, Sweden

Edie Greene
University of Colorado at Colorado Springs

Thomas Grisso
University of Massachusetts Medical Center

Jennifer L. Groscup
Scripps College

Stephen D. Hart
Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada

Maria Hartwig
John Jay College, City University of New York

Kirk Heilbrun
Drexel University

Jennifer S. Hunt
SUNY Buffalo State

Matthew T. Huss
Creighton University

Saul M. Kassin
John Jay College, City University of New York

Daniel A. Krauss
Claremont McKenna College

Daryl G. Kroner
Southern Illinois University Carbondale

Amy-May Leach
University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Ontario, Canada

Lora M. Levett
University of Florida

Joel D. Lieberman
University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Jennifer Eno Louden
University of Texas at El Paso

Robert J. MacCoun
Stanford Law School

Stephanie Madon
Iowa State University

Lindsay Malloy
Florida International University

Sarah Manchak
University of Cincinnati

Christian A. Meissner
Iowa State University

John Monahan
University of Virginia School of Law

Daniel C. Murrie
University of Virginia

Cynthia Najdowski
University of Albany

Jeffrey S. Neuschatz
University of Alabama at Huntsville

Steven D. Penrod
John Jay College, City University of New York

Kerri L. Pickel
Ball State University

Gianni Pirelli
Private Practice, Verona, New Jersey

Debra A. Poole
Central Michigan University

Jodi A. Quas
University of California, Irvine

Allison D. Redlich
University at Albany, State University of New York

Jennifer K. Robbennolt
University of Illinois College of Law

Richard Rogers
University of North Texas

Mary R. Rose
University of Texas at Austin

Barry Rosenfeld
Fordham University

David F. Ross
University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

R. Barry Ruback
Pennsylvania State University

Randall T. Salekin
University of Alabama

Jessica Salerno
Arizona State University

Regina A. Schuller
York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Nicholas Schweitzer
Arizona State University

Nicholas Scurich
University of California, Irvine

Michael C. Seto
Royal Ottawa Health Care Group, Ontario, Canada

Diane Sivasubramaniam
Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia

Christopher Slobogin
Vanderbilt University Law School

Brian C. Smith
Graceland University

Samuel R. Sommers
Tufts University

Loretta J. Stalans
Loyola University

Nancy K. Steblay
Augsburg College

Colin Tredoux
University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

Jodi L. Viljoen
Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada

Gina M. Vincent
University of Massachusetts Medical School

Aldert Vrij
University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom

Glenn D. Walters
Kutztown University

Nathan Weber
Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia

Gary L. Wells
Iowa State University

Editorial Assistant

Karima Modjadidi
John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York

Abstracting & Indexing

Abstracting and indexing services providing coverage of Law and Human Behavior®

  • Academic Search Alumni Edition
  • Academic Search Complete
  • Academic Search Elite
  • Academic Search Index
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  • Book Review Digest Plus
  • Business Source Alumni Edition
  • Business Source Complete
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  • Business Source Elite
  • Business Source Index
  • Business Source Main Edition
  • Business Source Premier
  • Cabell's Directory of Publishing Opportunities in Psychology
  • Criminal Justice Abstracts
  • Criminal Justice Abstracts with Full Text
  • Current Abstracts
  • Current Contents: Social & Behavioral Sciences
  • ERIH (European Reference Index for the Humanities and Social Sciences)
  • Health Business Elite
  • Index to Legal Periodicals and Books
  • Index to Legal Periodicals and Books Full Text
  • Journal Citations Report: Social Sciences Edition
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  • Mosby's Nursing Consult
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  • Social Sciences Citation Index
  • Social Services Abstracts
  • SocINDEX
  • SocINDEX with Full Text
  • Sociological Abstracts
  • Sociology Source International
  • TOC Premier
  • Westlaw
Manuscript Submission

Prior to submission, please carefully read and follow the submission guidelines detailed below. Manuscripts that do not conform to the submission guidelines may be returned without review.


Law and Human Behavior® is now using a software system to screen submitted content for similarity with other published content. The system compares each submitted manuscript against a database of 25+ million scholarly publications, as well as content appearing on the open web.

This allows APA to check submissions for potential overlap with material previously published in scholarly journals (e.g., lifted or republished material). A similarity report will be generated by the system and provided to the Law and Human Behavior Editorial office for review immediately upon submission.

Submit manuscripts electronically (.rtf or .doc) through the Manuscript Submission Portal.

Submit Manuscript

Margaret Bull Kovera
Professor of Psychology
John Jay College
City University of New York
445 W. 59th Street
New York, NY 10019

Please supply complete contact information, including email addresses and fax numbers, for use by the editorial office and later by the production office. The majority of correspondence between the editorial office and authors is handled by email, so a valid email address is important to the timely flow of communication during the editorial process.

Masked Review Policy

Law and Human Behavior has in place a policy of masked review for all submissions. The cover letter should include all authors' names and institutional affiliations. Do not include any personal information (name, affiliation, etc.) anywhere in the manuscript or on the cover page. Every effort should be made to see that the manuscript itself contains no clues to the authors' identity.

Please ensure that the final version for production includes a byline and full author note for typesetting.

Manuscript Preparation

Prepare manuscripts according to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition). Manuscripts may be copyedited for bias-free language (see Chapter 3 of the Publication Manual).

Review APA's Checklist for Manuscript Submission before submitting your article.

Double-space all copy. Other formatting instructions, as well as instructions on preparing tables, figures, references, metrics, and abstracts, appear in the Manual. Additional guidance on APA Style is available on the APA Style website.

Below are additional instructions regarding the preparation of display equations, computer code, and tables.

Display Equations

We strongly encourage you to use MathType (third-party software) or Equation Editor 3.0 (built into pre-2007 versions of Word) to construct your equations, rather than the equation support that is built into Word 2007 and Word 2010. Equations composed with the built-in Word 2007/Word 2010 equation support are converted to low-resolution graphics when they enter the production process and must be rekeyed by the typesetter, which may introduce errors.

To construct your equations with MathType or Equation Editor 3.0:

  • Go to the Text section of the Insert tab and select Object.
  • Select MathType or Equation Editor 3.0 in the drop-down menu.

If you have an equation that has already been produced using Microsoft Word 2007 or 2010 and you have access to the full version of MathType 6.5 or later, you can convert this equation to MathType by clicking on MathType Insert Equation. Copy the equation from Microsoft Word and paste it into the MathType box. Verify that your equation is correct, click File, and then click Update. Your equation has now been inserted into your Word file as a MathType Equation.

Use Equation Editor 3.0 or MathType only for equations or for formulas that cannot be produced as Word text using the Times or Symbol font.

Computer Code

Because altering computer code in any way (e.g., indents, line spacing, line breaks, page breaks) during the typesetting process could alter its meaning, we treat computer code differently from the rest of your article in our production process. To that end, we request separate files for computer code.

In Online Supplemental Material

We request that runnable source code be included as supplemental material to the article. For more information, visit Supplementing Your Article With Online Material.

In the Text of the Article

If you would like to include code in the text of your published manuscript, please submit a separate file with your code exactly as you want it to appear, using Courier New font with a type size of 8 points. We will make an image of each segment of code in your article that exceeds 40 characters in length. (Shorter snippets of code that appear in text will be typeset in Courier New and run in with the rest of the text.) If an appendix contains a mix of code and explanatory text, please submit a file that contains the entire appendix, with the code keyed in 8-point Courier New.


Use Word's Insert Table function when you create tables. Using spaces or tabs in your table will create problems when the table is typeset and may result in errors.

Academic Writing and English Language Editing Services

Authors who feel that their manuscript may benefit from additional academic writing or language editing support prior to submission are encouraged to seek out such services at their host institutions, engage with colleagues and subject matter experts, and/or consider several vendors that offer discounts to APA authors.

Please note that APA does not endorse or take responsibility for the service providers listed. It is strictly a referral service.

Use of such service is not mandatory for publication in an APA journal. Use of one or more of these services does not guarantee selection for peer review, manuscript acceptance, or preference for publication in any APA journal.

Submitting Supplemental Materials

APA can place supplemental materials online, available via the published article in the PsycARTICLES® database. Please see Supplementing Your Article With Online Material for more details.

Abstract and Keywords

All manuscripts must include an abstract containing a maximum of 250 words typed on a separate page. After the abstract, please supply up to five keywords or brief phrases.

Public Significance Statements

Authors submitting manuscripts to Law and Human Behavior are required to provide 2–3 brief sentences regarding the public significance of the study or meta-analysis described in their paper.

This description should be included within the manuscript on the abstract/keywords page. It should be written in language that is easily understood by both professionals and members of the lay public.

When an accepted paper is published, these sentences will be boxed beneath the abstract for easy accessibility. All such descriptions will also be published as part of the Table of Contents, as well as on the journal's web page.

This new policy is in keeping with efforts to increase dissemination and usage by larger and diverse audiences.

Examples of these 2–3 sentences include the following:

  • "A brief cognitive–behavioral intervention for caregivers of children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant reduced caregiver distress during the transplant hospitalization. Long-term effects on caregiver distress were found for more anxious caregivers as well as caregivers of children who developed graft-versus-host disease after the transplant."
  • "Inhibitory processes, particularly related to temporal attention, may play a critical role in response to exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The main finding that individuals with PTSD who made more clinical improvement showed faster improvement in inhibition over the course of exposure therapy supports the utility of novel therapeutic interventions that specifically target attentional inhibition and better patient-treatment matching."
  • "When children participated in the enriched preschool program Head Start REDI, they were more likely to follow optimal developmental trajectories of social–emotional functioning through third grade. Ensuring that all children living in poverty have access to high-quality preschool may be one of the more effective means of reducing disparities in school readiness and increasing the likelihood of lifelong success."

To be maximally useful, these statements of public significance should not simply be sentences lifted directly from the manuscript.

They are meant to be informative and useful to any reader. They should provide a bottom-line, take-home message that is accurate and easily understood. In addition, they should be able to be translated into media-appropriate statements for use in press releases and on social media.

Prior to final acceptance and publication, all public significance statements will be carefully reviewed to make sure they meet these standards. Authors will be expected to revise statements as necessary.


List references in alphabetical order. Each listed reference should be cited in text, and each text citation should be listed in the References section.

Examples of basic reference formats:

  • Journal Article:
    Hughes, G., Desantis, A., & Waszak, F. (2013). Mechanisms of intentional binding and sensory attenuation: The role of temporal prediction, temporal control, identity prediction, and motor prediction. Psychological Bulletin, 139, 133–151.
  • Authored Book:
    Rogers, T. T., & McClelland, J. L. (2004). Semantic cognition: A parallel distributed processing approach. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Chapter in an Edited Book:
    Gill, M. J., & Sypher, B. D. (2009). Workplace incivility and organizational trust. In P. Lutgen-Sandvik & B. D. Sypher (Eds.), Destructive organizational communication: Processes, consequences, and constructive ways of organizing (pp. 53–73). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.


Graphics files are welcome if supplied as Tiff or EPS files. Multipanel figures (i.e., figures with parts labeled a, b, c, d, etc.) should be assembled into one file.

The minimum line weight for line art is 0.5 point for optimal printing.

For more information about acceptable resolutions, fonts, sizing, and other figure issues, please see the general guidelines.

When possible, please place symbol legends below the figure instead of to the side.

APA offers authors the option to publish their figures online in color without the costs associated with print publication of color figures.

The same caption will appear on both the online (color) and print (black and white) versions. To ensure that the figure can be understood in both formats, authors should add alternative wording (e.g., "the red (dark gray) bars represent") as needed.

For authors who prefer their figures to be published in color both in print and online, original color figures can be printed in color at the editor's and publisher's discretion provided the author agrees to pay:

  • $900 for one figure
  • An additional $600 for the second figure
  • An additional $450 for each subsequent figure


Authors of accepted papers must obtain and provide to the editor on final acceptance all necessary permissions to reproduce in print and electronic form any copyrighted work, including test materials (or portions thereof), photographs, and other graphic images (including those used as stimuli in experiments).

On advice of counsel, APA may decline to publish any image whose copyright status is unknown.

Open Science Badges

Starting in January 2017, articles are eligible for open science badges recognizing publicly available data, materials, and/or preregistration plans and analyses. These badges are awarded on a self-disclosure basis.

At submission, authors must confirm that criteria have been fulfilled in a signed badge disclosure form (PDF, 33KB) that must be submitted as supplemental material. If all criteria are met as confirmed by the editor, the form will then be published with the article as supplemental material.

Authors should also note their eligibility for the badge(s) in the cover letter.

For all badges, items must be made available on an open-access repository with a persistent identifier in a format that is time-stamped, immutable, and permanent. For the preregistered badge, this is an institutional registration system.

Data and materials must be made available under an open license allowing others to copy, share, and use the data, with attribution and copyright as applicable.

Available badges are:

Open Data BadgeOpen Data:
All data necessary to reproduce the reported results that are digitally shareable are made publicly available. Information necessary for replication (e.g., codebooks or metadata) must be included.


Open Materials BadgeOpen Materials:
All materials necessary to reproduce the reported results that are digitally shareable, along with descriptions of non-digital materials necessary for replication, are made publicly available.


Preregistered BadgePreregistered:
At least one study's design has been preregistered with descriptions of (a) the research design and study materials, including the planned sample size; (b) the motivating research question or hypothesis; (c) the outcome variable(s); and (d) the predictor variables, including controls, covariates, and independent variables. Results must be fully disclosed. As long as they are distinguished from other results in the article, results from analyses that were not preregistered may be reported in the article.


Preregistered+Analysis BadgePreregistered+Analysis Plan:
At least one study's design has been preregistered along with an analysis plan for the research — and results are recorded according to that plan.


Note that it may not be possible to preregister a study or to share data and materials. Applying for open science badges is optional.

Publication Policies

APA policy prohibits an author from submitting the same manuscript for concurrent consideration by two or more publications.

See also APA Journals® Internet Posting Guidelines.

APA requires authors to reveal any possible conflict of interest in the conduct and reporting of research (e.g., financial interests in a test or procedure, funding by pharmaceutical companies for drug research).

Authors of accepted manuscripts are required to transfer the copyright to APA.

Ethical Principles

It is a violation of APA Ethical Principles to publish "as original data, data that have been previously published" (Standard 8.13).

In addition, APA Ethical Principles specify that "after research results are published, psychologists do not withhold the data on which their conclusions are based from other competent professionals who seek to verify the substantive claims through reanalysis and who intend to use such data only for that purpose, provided that the confidentiality of the participants can be protected and unless legal rights concerning proprietary data preclude their release" (Standard 8.14).

APA expects authors to adhere to these standards. Specifically, APA expects authors to have their data available throughout the editorial review process and for at least 5 years after the date of publication.

Authors are required to state in writing that they have complied with APA ethical standards in the treatment of their sample, human or animal, or to describe the details of treatment.

The APA Ethics Office provides the full Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct electronically on its website in HTML, PDF, and Word format. You may also request a copy by emailing or calling the APA Ethics Office (202-336-5930). You may also read "Ethical Principles," December 1992, American Psychologist, Vol. 47, pp. 1597–1611.

Appeals Process

Manuscripts Rejected Without Review

Authors of manuscripts rejected without review may appeal the decision to the Editor-in-Chief, requesting a reconsideration of the decision. If that appeal is rejected but the author believes the decision is inappropriate, the author may appeal to the Executive Committee of the American Psychology-Law Society (AP-LS), APA Division 41.

Manuscripts Rejected After Peer Review

An author wishing to appeal a manuscript should direct the editorial appeal first to the associate editor who made the rejection. If the associate editor declines to further consider the manuscript, or the associate editor does a second review of the manuscript and still rejects it, the author may appeal next to the Editor-in-Chief. If the Editor-in-Chief believes the appeal has merit, the manuscript may be reassigned to a new associate editor for independent re-review. If the Editor-in-Chief rejects the appeal, the author may request that the appeal and the manuscript be sent to the Executive Committee of the American Psychology-Law Society (AP-LS), APA Division 41.

Rejected Comments

Decisions on comments are final and cannot be appealed.

Other Information

Special Issues
  • Police-Induced Confessions

    A Scientific Review Paper and Commentaries of the American Psychology–Law Society (AP–LS), APA Division 41, originally published in Law and Human Behavior, Vol. 34, No. 1, February 2010. This collection reviews the literature on police interrogation and confession and distills from it important insights and policy recommendations.