Psychological Bulletin ® publishes evaluative and integrative research reviews and interpretations of issues in scientific psychology. Both qualitative (narrative) and quantitative (meta-analytic) reviews will be considered, depending on the nature of the database under consideration for review.

Integrative reviews or research syntheses focus on empirical studies and seek to summarize past research by drawing overall conclusions from many separate investigations that address related or identical hypotheses. A research synthesis typically presents the authors' assessments of

  • the state of knowledge concerning the relations of interest;
  • critical assessments of the strengths and weaknesses in past research; and
  • important issues that research has left unresolved, thereby directing future research so it can yield a maximum amount of new information.

Both cumulative and historical approaches (i.e., ones that organize a research literature by highlighting temporally unfolding developments in a field) can be used. Integrative research reviews that develop connections between areas of research are particularly valuable.

Manuscripts dealing with topics at the interface of psychological sciences and society are welcome, as are evaluations of applied psychological therapies, programs, and interventions. Expository articles may be published if they are deemed accurate, broad, clear, and pertinent.

Methodological articles that previously were submitted to Psychological Bulletin should now be submitted to Psychological Methods. Original theoretical articles should be submitted to Psychological Review, even when they include summaries of research. Research syntheses should be submitted to Psychological Bulletin even when they develop integrated theoretical statements.

Disclaimer: APA and the Editors of Psychological Bulletin® assume no responsibility for statements and opinions advanced by the authors of its articles.

Psychological Bulletin® is a registered trademark of American Psychological Association
Editorial Board


Dolores Albarracín
University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign

Associate Editors

Pim Cuijpers
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Paul W. Eastwick
University of California, Davis

Blair T. Johnson
University of Connecticut

Glenn Roisman
University of Minnesota

Gale M. Sinatra
University of Southern California

Paul Verhaeghen
Georgia Institute of Technology

Peer Review Coordinator

Sarah Dedej
American Psychological Association

Consulting Editors

Karen Bartsch
University of Wyoming

Margaret E. Beier
Rice University

Daniel Berry
University of Minnesota

S. Alexandra Burt
Michigan State University

Nichelle C. Carpenter
University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign

Stephen J. Ceci
Cornell University

Man-pui Sally Chan
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Mike W.-L. Cheung
National University of Singapore

Paul De Boeck
The Ohio State University

Jan De Houwer
Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium

Alice H. Eagly
Northwestern University

Jeffrey D. Fisher
University of Connecticut and Center for Health, Intervention and Prevention (CHIP)

Nathan A. Fox
University of Maryland, College Park

Jane E. Gillham
Swarthmore College

Usha Goswami
University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Eddie Harmon-Jones
University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

Tania B. Huedo-Medina
University of Connecticut

Emily Alden Hennessy
University of Connecticut

Stephen P. Hinshaw
University of California, Berkeley

Sara R. Jaffee
University of Pennsylvania

Sheri L. Johnson
University of California, Berkeley

Maria Kangas
Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia

Deborah A. Kashy
Michigan State University

G. Tarcan Kumkale
Kadir Has University, Istanbul, Turkey

R. Brooke Lea
Macalester College

Maryellen C. MacDonald
University of Wisconsin–Madison

Blakeley B. McShane
Northwestern University

Monica Melby-Lervag
University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway

Wendy Berry Mendes
University of California, San Francisco

Rodolfo Mendoza-Denton
University of California, Berkeley

Gregory Miller
Northwestern University

Victoria J. Molfese
University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Nora S. Newcombe
Temple University

Bunmi O. Olatunji
Vanderbilt University

Erika A. Patall
University of Southern California

Therese D. Pigott
Loyola University Chicago

James E. Pustejovsky
The University of Texas at Austin

Hannah R. Rothstein
Baruch College, City University of New York

Ayelet Meron Ruscio
University of Pennsylvania

Frank L. Schmidt
University of Iowa

James A. Shepperd
University of Florida

Vladimir Sloutsky
The Ohio State University

Jonathan Smallwood
University of York, York, United Kingdom

José A. Soto
The Pennsylvania State University

Bonnie Spring
Northwestern University

Elizabeth Tipton
Columbia University

Jack L. Vevea
University of California, Merced

Wolfgang Viechtbauer
Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands

David Voyer
University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada

Edward Watkins
University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom

Thomas Webb
University of Sheffield, United Kingdom

Gary L. Wells
Iowa State University

Jennifer Wiley
University of Illinois at Chicago

John T. Wixted
University of California, San Diego

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Manuscript Submission

Prior to submission, please carefully read and follow the submission guidelines detailed below. Manuscripts that do not conform to the submission guidelines may be returned without review.


Submit manuscripts electronically through the Manuscript Submission Portal.

Submit Manuscript

All efforts should be undertaken to submit manuscripts electronically to the editor. Files can be sent in Microsoft Word, or as a PDF file. The version sent should be consistent with the complete APA-style printed version.

Dolores Albarracín, Editor
Department of Psychology
University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign
603 E. Daniel St.
Champaign, IL 61801

General correspondence may be directed to the Editor's Office.

In addition to addresses and phone numbers, please supply electronic mail addresses and fax numbers, if available, for potential use by the Editorial Office and later by the Production Office.

Keep a copy of the manuscript to guard against loss.

Psychological Bulletin is now using a software system to screen submitted content for similarity with other published content. The system compares the initial version of each submitted manuscript against a database of 40+ million scholarly documents, as well as content appearing on the open web. This allows APA to check submissions for potential overlap with material previously published in scholarly journals (e.g., lifted or republished material).

Masked Review Policy

The identities of authors will be withheld from reviewers and will be revealed after determining the final disposition of the manuscript only upon request and with the permission of the authors.

Authors are responsible for the preparation of manuscripts to permit masked review. Manuscripts submitted electronically should include all author names and affiliations, as well as the corresponding author's and co-authors' contact information, in the box labeled "cover letter," not in the manuscript file.

Every effort should be made to ensure that the manuscript itself contains no clues to the authors' identities, including deletion of easily identified self-references from the reference list.

If an author feels that revealing his or her identity is critical to receiving a fair review, such a request along with its justification should be made in the cover letter accompanying the manuscript.

Please ensure that the final version for production includes a byline and full author note for typesetting.

Policy on Commentaries

Psychological Bulletin traditionally publishes commentaries that are requested by the action editor in light of issues that arise during the review. These commentaries are brief, with the length set by the action editor but never exceeding half of the length of the original article.

The authors of the target article are then invited to write a response. The length of the response is also determined by the action editor and cannot exceed half of the length of the individual commentary/ies.

Both commentaries and responses have a strict timeline set by the action editor, which is typically one month. The response from the author/s of the target article ends the discussion in the context of Psychological Bulletin. After that point, authors are encouraged to submit related manuscripts to other scientific outlets.

Commentaries are not accepted for articles that are already in print.

Unsolicited commentaries may be submitted by authors only while accepted target articles are disseminated online. Unsolicited commentaries are subject to the regular process of preliminary editorial review after which a commentary, if deemed appropriate, may be sent out for external peer review.

No commentaries are published without external review.

Manuscript Preparation

Prepare manuscripts according to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition). Manuscripts may be copyedited for bias-free language (see Chapter 3 of the Publication Manual).

Review APA's Journal Manuscript Preparation Guidelines before submitting your article.

Double-space all copy. Other formatting instructions, as well as instructions on preparing tables, figures, references, metrics, and abstracts, appear in the Manual. Additional guidance on APA Style is available on the APA Style website.

Below are additional instructions regarding the preparation of display equations, computer code, and tables.

Display Equations

We strongly encourage you to use MathType (third-party software) or Equation Editor 3.0 (built into pre-2007 versions of Word) to construct your equations, rather than the equation support that is built into Word 2007 and Word 2010. Equations composed with the built-in Word 2007/Word 2010 equation support are converted to low-resolution graphics when they enter the production process and must be rekeyed by the typesetter, which may introduce errors.

To construct your equations with MathType or Equation Editor 3.0:

  • Go to the Text section of the Insert tab and select Object.
  • Select MathType or Equation Editor 3.0 in the drop-down menu.

If you have an equation that has already been produced using Microsoft Word 2007 or 2010 and you have access to the full version of MathType 6.5 or later, you can convert this equation to MathType by clicking on MathType Insert Equation. Copy the equation from Microsoft Word and paste it into the MathType box. Verify that your equation is correct, click File, and then click Update. Your equation has now been inserted into your Word file as a MathType Equation.

Use Equation Editor 3.0 or MathType only for equations or for formulas that cannot be produced as Word text using the Times or Symbol font.

Computer Code

Because altering computer code in any way (e.g., indents, line spacing, line breaks, page breaks) during the typesetting process could alter its meaning, we treat computer code differently from the rest of your article in our production process. To that end, we request separate files for computer code.

In Online Supplemental Material

We request that runnable source code be included as supplemental material to the article. For more information, visit Supplementing Your Article With Online Material.

In the Text of the Article

If you would like to include code in the text of your published manuscript, please submit a separate file with your code exactly as you want it to appear, using Courier New font with a type size of 8 points. We will make an image of each segment of code in your article that exceeds 40 characters in length. (Shorter snippets of code that appear in text will be typeset in Courier New and run in with the rest of the text.) If an appendix contains a mix of code and explanatory text, please submit a file that contains the entire appendix, with the code keyed in 8-point Courier New.


Use Word's Insert Table function when you create tables. Using spaces or tabs in your table will create problems when the table is typeset and may result in errors.

Academic Writing and English Language Editing Services

Authors who feel that their manuscript may benefit from additional academic writing or language editing support prior to submission are encouraged to seek out such services at their host institutions, engage with colleagues and subject matter experts, and/or consider several vendors that offer discounts to APA authors.

Please note that APA does not endorse or take responsibility for the service providers listed. It is strictly a referral service.

Use of such service is not mandatory for publication in an APA journal. Use of one or more of these services does not guarantee selection for peer review, manuscript acceptance, or preference for publication in any APA journal.

Submitting Supplemental Materials

APA can place supplemental materials online, available via the published article in the PsycARTICLES® database. Please see Supplementing Your Article With Online Material for more details.

Abstract and Keywords

All manuscripts must include an abstract containing a maximum of 250 words typed on a separate page. After the abstract, please supply up to five keywords or brief phrases.

Public Significance Statements

Authors submitting manuscripts to Psychological Bulletin are required to provide two to three brief sentences regarding the relevance or public health significance of the study or meta-analysis described in their manuscript.

This description should be included within the manuscript on the abstract/keywords page.

It should be written in language that is easily understood by both professionals and members of the lay public.


  • "This meta-analysis strongly suggests that (description of a given psychosocial treatment) is an effective treatment for anxiety, but only if it is of mild to moderate severity. For persons with severe anxiety, additional treatments may be necessary."
  • "This systematic review indicates that personality changes following psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. The changes are small and persist for (description of time in months or years)"
  • "This meta-analysis reveals a small to moderate effect of incidentally presenting words (e.g., as part of a game) on the actual actions of the recipients following priming. These effects are stronger when recipients of the primes are likely to value the behavior."

To be maximally useful, these statements of public significance should not simply be sentences lifted directly from the manuscript.

This statement supports efforts to increase dissemination and usage of research findings by larger and more diverse audiences. In addition, they should be able to be translated into media-appropriate statements for use in press releases and on social media.

Authors may refer to the Guidance for Translational Abstracts and Public Significance Statements page for help writing their statement.

Prior to final acceptance and publication, all public significance statements will be carefully reviewed to make sure they meet these standards. Authors will be expected to revise statements as necessary.


List references in alphabetical order. Each listed reference should be cited in text, and each text citation should be listed in the References section.

Examples of basic reference formats:

  • Journal Article:
    Hughes, G., Desantis, A., & Waszak, F. (2013). Mechanisms of intentional binding and sensory attenuation: The role of temporal prediction, temporal control, identity prediction, and motor prediction. Psychological Bulletin, 139, 133–151.
  • Authored Book:
    Rogers, T. T., & McClelland, J. L. (2004). Semantic cognition: A parallel distributed processing approach. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Chapter in an Edited Book:
    Gill, M. J., & Sypher, B. D. (2009). Workplace incivility and organizational trust. In P. Lutgen-Sandvik & B. D. Sypher (Eds.), Destructive organizational communication: Processes, consequences, and constructive ways of organizing (pp. 53–73). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.


Graphics files are welcome if supplied as Tiff or EPS files. Multipanel figures (i.e., figures with parts labeled a, b, c, d, etc.) should be assembled into one file.

The minimum line weight for line art is 0.5 point for optimal printing.

For more information about acceptable resolutions, fonts, sizing, and other figure issues, please see the general guidelines.

When possible, please place symbol legends below the figure instead of to the side.

APA offers authors the option to publish their figures online in color without the costs associated with print publication of color figures.

The same caption will appear on both the online (color) and print (black and white) versions. To ensure that the figure can be understood in both formats, authors should add alternative wording (e.g., "the red (dark gray) bars represent") as needed.

For authors who prefer their figures to be published in color both in print and online, original color figures can be printed in color at the editor's and publisher's discretion provided the author agrees to pay:

  • $900 for one figure
  • An additional $600 for the second figure
  • An additional $450 for each subsequent figure


Authors of accepted papers must obtain and provide to the editor on final acceptance all necessary permissions to reproduce in print and electronic form any copyrighted work, including test materials (or portions thereof), photographs, and other graphic images (including those used as stimuli in experiments).

On advice of counsel, APA may decline to publish any image whose copyright status is unknown.

Publication Policies

APA policy prohibits an author from submitting the same manuscript for concurrent consideration by two or more publications.

See also APA Journals® Internet Posting Guidelines.

APA requires authors to reveal any possible conflict of interest in the conduct and reporting of research (e.g., financial interests in a test or procedure, funding by pharmaceutical companies for drug research).

In light of changing patterns of scientific knowledge dissemination, APA requires authors to provide information on prior dissemination of the data and narrative interpretations of the data/research appearing in the manuscript (e.g., if some or all were presented at a conference or meeting, posted on a listserv, shared on a website, including academic social networks like ResearchGate, etc.). This information (2–4 sentences) must be provided as part of the Author Note.

Authors of accepted manuscripts are required to transfer the copyright to APA.

Ethical Principles

It is a violation of APA Ethical Principles to publish "as original data, data that have been previously published" (Standard 8.13).

In addition, APA Ethical Principles specify that "after research results are published, psychologists do not withhold the data on which their conclusions are based from other competent professionals who seek to verify the substantive claims through reanalysis and who intend to use such data only for that purpose, provided that the confidentiality of the participants can be protected and unless legal rights concerning proprietary data preclude their release" (Standard 8.14).

APA expects authors to adhere to these standards. Specifically, APA expects authors to have their data available throughout the editorial review process and for at least 5 years after the date of publication.

Authors are required to state in writing that they have complied with APA ethical standards in the treatment of their sample, human or animal, or to describe the details of treatment.

The APA Ethics Office provides the full Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct electronically on its website in HTML, PDF, and Word format. You may also request a copy by emailing or calling the APA Ethics Office (202-336-5930). You may also read "Ethical Principles," December 1992, American Psychologist, Vol. 47, pp. 1597–1611.

Other Information

Visit the Journals Publishing Resource Center for more resources for writing, reviewing, and editing articles for publishing in APA journals.