The psychology of men and masculinities is a broad, interdisciplinary field devoted to the study of how men's and boys' lives are shaped by biopsychosociocultural influences as well as the constellation of meanings associated with the male biological sex. The use of the term "masculinities" reflects the editors' belief that there are diverse meanings associated with being male that vary across time, situations, social groups, and cultures.

In the past three decades, there has been an exponential growth in empirical psychological research on men and masculinities, although this emerging body of research has yet to be appropriately summarized, synthesized, and critically evaluated. This APA handbook addresses that lack with a strong focus on psychological science. It tackles the full spectrum of the theoretical, empirical, and practical, not only focusing on the extant literature in traditional areas of men and masculinities, but also highlighting new and emerging scholarship.

The handbook is divided into four sections.

  • The first section addresses historical, conceptual, and methodological issues. Readers will be exposed to a wide range of theoretical perspectives on men and masculinities (e.g., biological, evolutionary, social norms, gender role conflict, social constructionist, and feminist) as well as methodological (quantitative and qualitative) approaches to studying men and masculinities.
  • The second section examines specific populations of men with a strong focus on developmental, cultural, and sexual orientation diversity.
  • The third section focuses on specific topics relevant to men's lives, such as careers, education, sexism, violence, and emotions.
  • The fourth and final section addresses several application domains, including men's helping seeking patterns, physical health, mental health, and experience of psychotherapy.

Each chapter investigates future directions, along with unresolved issues or emerging concerns.

Table of Contents

About the Editors-in-Chief


Series Preface


I. Historical, Conceptual, and Methodological Issues

  1. History and Future of the Psychology of Men and Masculinities
    Gary R. Brooks and William B. Elder
  2. The Gender Role Strain Paradigm and Masculinity Ideologies
    Ronald  F. Levant and Katherine Richmond
  3. An Empirical Review of Gender Role Conflict Research: New Conceptual Models and Research Paradigms
    James M. O'Neil and Robyn Denke
  4. Social Norms, Social Construction, and the Psychology of Men and Masculinity
    Michael E. Addis, Christopher S. Reigeluth, and Joseph R. Schwab
  5. Moving Beyond Essentialism in the Contemporary Psychodynamic Psychology of Men: Implications for Theory and Research
    Chris Blazina and Anne Bartone
  6. Accentuating Positive Masculinity: A New Foundation for the Psychology of Boys, Men, and Masculinity
    Mark S. Kiselica, Sheila Benton-Wright, and Matt Englar-Carlson
  7. Feminist Masculinities: The End of Gender as We Know It
    Louise Bordeaux Silverstein
  8. Masculinity at the National Cultural Level
    Geert Hofstede
  9. Biological Influences on Masculinity
    Richard A. Lippa
  10. Evolutionary Influences on Men's Lives
    David C. Geary, Benjamin Winegard, and Bo Winegard
  11. Enhancing and Diversifying Research Methods in the Psychology of Men and Masculinities
    Y. Joel Wong and Angela J. Horn

II. Specific Populations

  1. Everyday Racism as a Threat to the Masculine Social Self: Framing Investigations African American Male Health Disparities
    Wizdom Powell Hammond, Paul J. Fleming, and Laura Villa-Torres
  2. Asian American Men
    Derek Kenji Iwamoto and Aylin Kaya
  3. Latino American Men
    Lizette Ojeda and Kurt C. Organista
  4. American Indians, Alaska Natives, and the Psychology of Men and Masculinity
    Leah M. Rouse
  5. Masculinity Issues Among Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Men
    Francisco J. Sánchez
  6. The Psychology of Boys
    Timea Farkas and Campbell Leaper
  7. Masculinity Across the Life Span: Implications for Older Men
    Melanie J. Robbins, Stephen R. Wester, and Nancy B. McKean

III. Topics

  1. Social Class and Masculinity
    William Ming Liu, Alexander James Colbow, and Alexander James Rice
  2. The Double-Edged Sword of Stereotypes of Men
    Mia Steinberg and Amanda B. Diekman
  3. An Elephant in the Room: Men's Emotion From Sex Differences to Social Neuroscience
    Stephen R. Wester, Martin Heesacker, and Steven J. Snowden
  4. Men's Sexism: Causes, Correlates, and Trends in Research
    Jonathan P. Schwartz, Ryon C. McDermott, and Justin W. Martino-Harms
  5. Men and Men's Careers
    Nadya A. Fouad, Susan C. Whiston, and Rachel Feldwisch
  6. Furthering Fathering: What We Know and What We Need to Know
    Ryan A. McKelley and Aaron B. Rochlen
  7. Pornography and Male Socialization
    Paul J. Wright and Soyoung Bae
  8. Boys' and Men's Intimate Relationships: Friendships and Romantic Relationships
    Andrew P. Smiler and Robert Heasley
  9. Men's Body Image
    Mike C. Parent, Esther N. Schwartz, and Tyler C. Bradstreet
  10. Violence and Masculinities
    Christopher Kilmartin and Ryon C. McDermott
  11. Education and Masculinities
    Wayne Martino and Jennifer Ingrey
  12. Masculinities in Sport: Incorporating Heterogeneity Into Hegemony
    Jesse A. Steinfeldt, I. S. Keino Miller, and Jessica L. David

IV. Applications

  1. Men, Masculinities, and Help-Seeking Patterns
    David L. Vogel and Patrick J. Heath
  2. Men's Physical Health and Health Behaviors
    Derek M. Griffith and Roland J. Thorpe Jr.
  3. Men's Mental Health: A Biopsychosocial Critique
    Ryon C. McDermott, Jonathan P. Schwartz, and Jamey Leeanne Rislin
  4. Men and Psychotherapy
    Johanna Strokoff, Tyler C. Halford, and Jesse Owen


Editor Bios

Y. Joel Wong, PhD, is an associate professor in the APA-accredited program in counseling psychology at Indiana University. Dr. Wong obtained his doctoral degree in counseling psychology from the University Texas at Austin and completed his APA-accredited internship at the University of Texas' Counseling and Mental Health Center.

Dr. Wong has published more than 80 peer-reviewed articles and book chapters. His main research interests are in the psychology of men and masculinities, Asian American mental health, and positive psychology. Within the psychology of men and masculinities, Dr. Wong is broadly interested in basic theoretical conceptualizations of masculinities, how these conceptualizations can be operationalized and assessed, and their implications for individuals' well-being. In particular, Dr. Wong has studied men's emotional lives and the intersection of race, culture, and masculinities from social psychological and social constructionist perspectives.

Dr. Wong is an associate editor of two APA journals, Psychology of Men and Masculinity and the Journal of Counseling Psychology. He has also received several awards for his research, including the Researcher of the Year Award (APA Division 51 [Society for the Psychological Study of Men and Masculinity]; 2011), the Early Career Award for Distinguished Contribution to Research (Asian American Psychological Association; 2012), the Emerging Professional Contributions to Research Award (APA Division 45 [Society for the Psychological Study of Culture, Ethnicity and Race]; 2013), and the Best in Science Address (APA Division 17 [Society for Counseling Psychology]; 2014).

Stephen R. Wester, PhD, earned his bachelor of arts degree from the University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio (1992); his master's degree in clinical psychology from Xavier University, Cincinnati, Ohio (1994); and his doctoral degree in counseling psychology from the University of Florida, Gainesville (2000). Having completed his professional internship at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign's student counseling center, Dr. Wester joined the faculty of the Department of Educational Psychology at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee where he is currently a professor in, and training director of the APA-accredited training program in counseling psychology. He also holds a license as a psychologist in the State of Wisconsin.

Dr. Wester has been awarded the title Researcher of the Year (APA Division 51 [Society for the Psychological Study of Men and Masculinity]; 2006), and he was recently named fellow for that same division as well as of APA Division 17 (Society of Counseling Psychology).

Dr. Wester has authored or co-authored more than 40 peer-reviewed publications, and coauthored (with Drs. Tammi Vacha-Haase and Heidi Fowell Christianson) the text Psychotherapy With Older Men (2010).

Dr. Wester's expertise includes psychotherapy with men, masculinity issues, and the impact of male socialization on men's interpersonal functioning in a variety of contexts. He is currently working to understand the intersection of culture and masculinity, as well as the impact of traditional male ideology on men's likelihood of seeking counseling services. Dr. Wester also researches gender differences in emotionality, the degree to which counselors reinforce stereotyped gender behaviors, and the ethical and professional issues involved in the training of counseling psychologists.

He teaches at both the master's and doctoral levels in the areas of counseling theories, psychometric assessment, theories of personality, abnormal psychology, and the psychology of men.